Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand what is real.

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand what is real.[2] Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that others do not hear, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation.[2][3] People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety, depressive, or substance-use disorders.[11] Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and last a long time.[3][5]
The causes of schizophrenia include environmental and genetic factors.[4] Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use during adolescence, certain infections, parental age and poor nutrition during pregnancy.[4][12] Genetic factors include a variety of common and rare genetic variants.[13] Diagnosis is based on observed behavior, the person’s reported experiences and reports of others familiar with the person.[5] During diagnosis a person’s culture must also be taken into account.[5] As of 2013 there is no objective test.[5] Schizophrenia does not imply a “split personality” or “dissociative identity disorder” – conditions with which it is often confused in public perception.[14]
The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication, along with counselling, job training and social rehabilitation.[2][4] It is unclear whether typical or atypical antipsychotics are better.[15] In those who do not improve with other antipsychotics clozapine may be tried.[4] In more serious situations where there is risk to self or others involuntary hospitalization may be necessary, although hospital stays are now shorter and less frequent than they once were.[16]
About 0.3–0.7% of people are affected by schizophrenia during their lifetimes.[9] In 2013 there were an estimated 23.6 million cases globally.[17] Males are more often affected, and on average experience more severe symptoms.[2] About 20% of people do well and a few recover completely.[5] Social problems, such as long-term unemployment, poverty and homelessness are common.[5][18] The average life expectancy of people with the disorder is ten to twenty-five years less than for the general population.[7] This is the result of increased physical health problems and a higher suicide rate (about 5%).[9][19] In 2015 an estimated 17,000 people worldwide died from behavior related to, or caused by, schizophrenia.[10]

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